modern slavery in russia

These facilities have lower security than prisons and allow convicted criminals to leave with permission from authorities. Available from: Knight, K 2017, ‘Gay men in Chechnya are being tortured and killed. The remaining 29 percent are male. Italy imports cocoa from Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana at a value of US$227million. Kovpak, J 2016, ‘Russia to Reintroduce Forced Labor as Criminal Punishment’. Fish imports from China make up the by far largest share of these fish imports (nearly US$ 178 million). Contemporary slavery, also known as modern slavery or neo-slavery, refers to institutional slavery that continues to occur in present-day society. Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of, https://wikirate.org/UK_Modern_Slavery_Act_Research, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/11/world/europe/north-korea-russia-migrants.html, https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/2375%282017%29, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-northkorea-missiles-russia-sanctions/russia-to-send-home-all-north-korean-migrant-workers-by-2019-ifax-idUSKBN1FJ2RZ. Read more An estimated 10 to 12 million workers enter Russia annually.42 After the collapse of the Soviet Union, civil war and increasingly repressive regimes caused many individuals from the Central Asian republics to move to Russia in search of employment, taking advantage of visa-free travel arrangements. Modern slavery is a multibillion-dollar industry with just the forced labor aspect generating US $150 billion each year. The statement mentions that VTB Capital prohibits the use of modern slavery through specific requirements in its contracting processes. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons 2017. several incidents of labor exploitation around stadium construction preceding Russia’s World Cup this summer. At the same time, Turkmenistan, Belarus and Macedonia are recognized as countries with a high prevalence of modern slavery, while Russia, Turkey and Ukraine have the highest absolute figure of 39% of victims in Europe and Central Asia region. A human trafficking ring which made £2m by exploiting hundreds of vulnerable victims has been dismantled following the UK’s largest modern slavery investigation. If they do not bring back a certain amount of money a day, they may be punished.17, Compulsory prison labour was re-introduced as a criminal punishment from January 2017.18 Under the current legislation, convicted prisoners may be forced to perform labour at state prisons or private companies. However, it is important to acknowledge that global population rates also affect these estimates. Women and girls make up more than seven in 10 of the world’s modern slavery victims, with nearly 30 million female victims worldwide, major new research shows. 3, Forced labour in Russia predominantly occurs in informal and less regulated industries. I learned about modern slavery by chance: in 2011, an acquaintance told Melnikov about “free workers” in a brick production in Dagestan. Modern-day Slavery: The Story of African Women Trafficked to Russia H uman trafficking is trade or commerce in people. The New Russian Empire: Modern Slavery in Russia 1. Fish from various at-risk countries are imported into Russia up to an annual value of US$ 249.4 million. Policy-makers, businesses, and consumers must become aware of this risk and take responsibility for it. It created a golden opportunity for … Develop a National Referral Mechanism (NRM), a multi-disciplinary framework between all relevant actors from state and civil society aimed at identifying and referring victims to assistance and protection. Russia imports 85 percent of its sugarcane from Brazil, totalling US$ 321.8 million in value. The Russian government has not yet introduced a comprehensive National Referral Mechanism (NRM), which would provide a framework for cooperation among the different actors involved in identifying and protecting victims.77, The Russian government re-introduced compulsory labour in its prison system, beginning 1 January 2017. To tackle slave labor, Walk Free recommended for Russia to begin publishing statistics on victim numbers, grant asylum to North Korean laborers and minimize imports of goods made using forced labor. The statement released by VTB Capital is available on the company’s website, though it has not been signed by a CEO or Director. Our exclusives and on-the-ground reporting are being read and shared by many high-profile journalists. The law created a unified nationwide procurement system and established mandatory procedures for all federal, provincial and municipal government agencies.82 However, the procurement law does not contain any explicit policies or guidelines that prohibit the use of businesses suspected of using forced labour, or purchasing products that were made using forced labour.83, In 2016, the Walk Free Foundation and WikiRate84 partnered to develop a UK Modern Slavery Act Research project that would contribute to transparency on corporate action on modern slavery by enabling members of the public to view and assess modern slavery statements produced under Section 54 of the UK Modern Slavery Act.85 Section 54 requires businesses either headquartered or conducting business in the UK and with an annual turnover of over GBP36 million per annum to release an annual statement on the actions they are taking to respond to modern slavery.86 There are an estimated 12,000 to 17,000 statements that will be produced under this reporting requirement, many of which are housed on the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (BHRRC) Modern Slavery Registry.87. Modern slavery is a destructive, personal crime and an abuse of human rights. Anonymous sources, acting from within the oligarch class of the Russian establishment, revealed the troubling reality of modern slavery in the Eurasian Federation. The Wikirate platform enables university students and the general public to access the statements and answer a series of questions assessing whether the statements meet the requirements of the Act (signed by a board member, approved by the board and hosted on the company homepage) and if they detail policies that enable the business to better respond to modern slavery. In 2019 the Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner (IASC) estimated there were 136,000 victims of modern slavery and human trafficking in the UK itself. Slavery in modern Russia Slavery flourishes in Russian regions where a weak state, low salaries, and corrupt police make it profitable. Some of its 400 victims worked for as little as 50p a day. Higgins, A 2017, ‘North Korean’s in Russia Work ‘Basically in the Situation of Slaves’’. Russia's corruption is causing hundreds to the country causing more the be enslaved. Adolescent victims of trafficking are placed in shelters for children in distress.76, Generally, victims are identified and referred by either NGOs or law enforcement on an ad hoc basis. The National Crime Agency (NCA 2017 ) has expressed alarm at the growth in numbers: the 4577 offences of modern slavery recorded by UK police in 2018 were up 45% on the number for 2017 (IASC 2019 ). Stulov, M 2016, ‘Russian Justice System to Reintroduce Forced Labor in 2017’. Modern slavery is an umbrella term including human trafficking for sex, labour or organs, exploitative labour practices, child labour and early and forced marriage. The 10 countries with the largest estimated absolute numbers of people in modern slavery include some of the world’s most populous countries — India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Uzbekistan, North Korea, Russia, Nigeria, the … Stepan Fomin 1 June 2015 Share this. Sign and ratify the Council of Europe Convention on Actions against Trafficking in Human Beings. While ‘modern slavery’ is not a legal category per se, I use it as an umbrella term for the practices of human trafficking, slavery, servitude, and forced or compulsory labour. The victims are allegedly officially accepted into universities in Russia so that they may obtain their visa document, but rarely make contact with the universities once they had arrived in Russia.31, Child commercial sexual exploitation is prevalent throughout Russia, although the visibility of the crime has decreased due to an upsurge in internet usage, which has created new pathways to approach and exploit victims. After the local court failed to hear the claims, lawyers filed a complaint with the European Court of human Rights. Activists have claimed major Western fashion brands are complicit in the abuse.. envoy says Russia-North Korea deportation pact puts refugees at risk’. Kislov, D & Zhanaev, E 2017, ‘Russia: Xenophobia and vulnerability of migrants from Central Asia’. Labour Reforms in Uttar Pradesh: A step towards Modern Slavery. ‘Russia begins deportation of North Korean workers — ambassador’ 2018. The highest value at-risk products that may be produced using modern slavery and imported by Russia are laptops, computers, and mobile phones, and apparel. The statements analysed by the Modern Slavery Act Project were the most recently available statements at the time the research was conducted – in most cases, this would be the 2016 statement. Published. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Pub. Debt bondage , a type of forced labor that compels an individual to work to pay off a debt – often from previous generations – is the most common form of modern slavery in India. Президент России 2018, Федеральный закон от 23.04.2018 № 96-ФЗ: О внесении изменений в статью 53–1 Уголовного кодекса Российской Федерации и Уголовно-процессуальный кодекс Российской Федерации [President of Russia 2018, Federal Law No. Slavery in Today's Russia Put an End to Modern Slavery in Russia by Dylan Norris Geography In order for the world to grow and become united, the dominance of slavery must end. Establish specialised shelters for victims of modern slavery, and provide training for all social workers so they might provide specialised care to victims. Workers are finishing Samara Arena ahead of the, Photo credit: Yegor Aleyev\TASS via Getty Images, Imports of products at risk of modern slavery to Russia. At the beginning of 2015, a new law came into effect that requires foreign workers from countries that do not have a visa policy with Russia to obtain a license to be able to work legally, to pass Russian language and history tests, and pay extensive medical insurance and examination fees.65 The new law has particularly affected migrant workers from CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) countries, such as Tajikistan, who were previously able to use their national identity cards to enter and remain in Russia, but now need to produce an international passport instead.66 This law has resulted in a slight decline in influxes of migrant labour in 2016-2017, but – despite concerns67 – it is unclear if it drove considerable amounts of workers underground or prevented them from coming to Russia altogether. The International Labour Organization (ILO), the human rights group Walk Free Foundation, and the International Organization for Migration have produced a landmark report which takes the vital first step of accurately identifying exactly how many people are the victims of modern slavery. This refers to offences recorded under articles 120 (forced organ removal), 127.1 (trafficking in persons), 127.2 (slave labour), 240 and 241 (enticement into prostitution and pimping), 242.1 (production and circulation of material or objects with pornographic depiction of minors), and 242.2 (use of minors for the production of pornographic materials). ... Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Russia… For example, in 2017, brutal campaigns against gay men in Chechnya reportedly led to abduction, forced disappearances, torture, and deaths by authorities.40. The index documented several incidents of labor exploitation around stadium construction preceding Russia’s World Cup this summer. WikiRate has developed an open access research platform that allows anyone to systematically gather and report publicly available information on corporate Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) practices. The latest statistics provided by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), based on statistics collected by the Russian government, show that in 2015, there were 285 detected victims of trafficking under the different trafficking-related articles1 of Russia’s criminal code. Mapping modern slavery. China, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Russia South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand: Nearly 30 percent of Italy’s total imports of apparel, as well as laptops, computers, and mobile phones, come from countries considered at risk of using modern slavery in the production of these goods. A new extradition agreement between Russia and North Korea, signed in February 2016, introduced measures to allow mutual deportation of illegal immigrants.68 The Main Directorate for Migration Affairs (until April 2016, previously called the Federal Migration Service) is now allowed to repatriate North Koreans who are “illegally” residing in Russia, even though they may face serious risk of abuse and exploitation in labour camps, or even the death penalty, upon their return to North Korea. Reporting on modern slavery in Uzbekistan is difficult as the government has routinely harassed, threatened, arrested, and abused activists seeking to observe the cotton harvest and weeding seasons. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Europe, Ltd. (MHIE) modern slavery and human trafficking statement for the financial year ending 31 March 2020, pursuant to section 54 of the Modern Slavery Act 2015. Worries about side effects and trial results made the vaccine a no go for 60% of respondents. Read the entire report here. Outside of Uzbekistan, citizens are subjected to forced labor in the construction, oil and gas, agriculture, retail, and hospitality sectors, mostly in Kazakhstan, Turkey, Russia, the United Arab … Russia has criminalised human trafficking in article 127.1 of the criminal code. ILO reports that labor trafficking is the most predominant form of trafficking in Russia. Mass vaccination against Covid-19 is currently not feasible in 42 Russian regions, according to an independent study. See www.wikirate.org. The Russian government has put tougher restrictions on migrant workers in an attempt to cut the number of irregular migrant workers in the country. Russian; Россия ; About ... Modern slavery and human trafficking forms a fundamental part of that remit and we are committed to working with suppliers to prevent slavery and human trafficking within their businesses and, specifically, where that is relevant to our business relationship with them. The survey includes questions on underage workers, employee rights and freedoms, use of foreign and migrant workers, due diligence processes, policies and procedures. Women are disproportionately affected by modern slavery. Based on this assessment, it is highly likely that many migrant workers utilized to build the World Cup facilities will not receive their wages. Men and women are trafficked within Russia and from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, and Moldova to Russia for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor, including work in the construction Since the publication of the 2016 Global Slavery Index, Russia has not implemented any law that requires private businesses to report on steps taken to reduce risk of forced labour in their supply chains. While the use of slave labour is criminalised under article 127.2 and article 127.1 mentions slave labour as a type of exploitation as part of the crime of human trafficking, the act of slavery itself is not distinctly criminalised.58 Articles 240 and 241 address recruitment into sex work and pimping.59 In relation to the alleged exploitation of migrant workers from North Korea on the construction site for the St Petersburg stadium for the 2018 S… Slavery in Russia ended in February 19th, 1861 when Russian Emperor Alexander II issued The Emancipation of Russia's serfs in 1861, for which he is known as Alexander the Liberator . It embodies many features of slavery. Research conducted by the UK Home Office in 2014 estimated that there are between 10,000 to 13,000 potential victims of modern slavery in the UK.1 However, the UK National Crime Agency (NCA) has found this to be only the “tip of the iceberg”2 and indicated that the true numbers are … Read the entire report here. Therefore, there are concerns that prisoners are forced to work for private companies against their will.19 In addition, Russian law allows for compulsory labour to be imposed as a punishment for various activities, including the expression of political or ideological views which are deemed to be ‘extremist’. ‘Russia ‘forced marriage’ reporter Milashina flees Chechnya’ 2015. Higgins, A 2017, ‘North Korean’s in Russia Work ‘Basically in the Situation of Slaves’’. There are shelters for women and children in distress in major cities, which are usually funded by municipalities, that can deal with modern slavery victims, although they are not specifically trained to care for these types of victims. A 2012 law, which demanded that foreign-financed NGOs and other international organisations that engaged in political activities register as “foreign agents” was further amended in 2014 to authorise the Justice Ministry to register “undesirable groups” as “foreign agents”, even without their consent.71 This law effectively cracks down on civil society, including groups combatting modern slavery and providing support services for victims. For example, the Global Slavery Index recently estimated that 794,000 people in Russia in 2016 were living in conditions that they defined as modern slavery. Women and girls are disproportionately affected by modern slavery, 71 percent of the overall total, a study says. It is reported that teenage girls are primarily sexually exploited in brothels, hostels, saunas, and increasingly in private apartments.32, There are reports of Russian women and girls being abducted for forced marriage in the northern Caucasus region.33 In 2015, the case of a 17-year-old girl who was reportedly forced into marrying a 46-year-old police commander in Chechnya in the northern Caucasus received international media attention.34 The police chief took the girl as his second wife although polygamy is prohibited in Russia, but apparently common in Chechnya.35, While Russia is affected by modern slavery within its own borders, the realities of global trade and business make it inevitable that Russia, like many other countries globally, will be exposed to the risk of modern slavery through the products it imports. Crisis . [2 May 2018]. The research was published by the US-based think-tank the Center for Global Policy and was reviewed by the BBC as well as German newspaper Suddeutsche Zeitung. For a detailed methodology of how these products were identified, please refer to Appendix 3 in the 2018 GSI report. [2, http://legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes/country/7, https://www.hrw.org/russia-government-against-rights-groups-battle-chronicle, https://www.loc.gov/law/help/govt-procurement-law/russia.php, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/30/contents/enacted, Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand. There have been reports of Russian government officials facilitating trafficking and entry of trafficking victims into Russia.53 Some employers reportedly bribe Russian officials to avoid penalties imposed on them for employing irregular migrants.54 There are also suspicions that officials charge migrant workers who enter the country excessive fees for work permits.55, There are strongly patriarchal views of marriage in some of Russia’s republics in the North Caucasus, such as Dagestan and Chechnya.56 These views are reinforced by cultural traditions and religious views that do not respect women’s rights. To what extent could police identify victims of modern slavery among growers arrested on cannabis farms as suspects under drug laws, and what challenges of evidence would have to be met to separate offending from victimisation? The Modern Slavery Act 2015 (the “Act”) became law in the UK on March 26, 2015 and came into force on October 29, 2015. The conflict in the eastern part of the neighbouring Ukraine has increased the risk of cross-border trafficking and forced labour due to war, displacement, and economic crisis.48 Ukraine has one of the largest diasporas in the world, with the major share residing in Russia.49 Russia was one of the most popular destination countries for Ukrainian migrants seeking work abroad in 2014-15 despite the conflict, with 2.5 million Ukrainian citizens registered in Russia.50 The main destination country of all Ukrainian victims of human trafficking who were provided with IOM assistance between 2010 and 2015 was Russian.51 A survey commissioned by the IOM also found that the percentage of Ukrainians who would agree to precarious offers regarding working abroad increased from 14 percent in 2011 to 21 percent in 2015.52 This may reflect a worsening economic situation and increasing conflict in the Ukraine. A bombshell was dropped in the New York Times, Die Welt, and the London Evening Standard this morning. Modern slavery in the heart of Europe. Slavery flourishes in Russian regions where a weak state, low salaries, and corrupt police make it profitable. The most recent initiative in fighting modern slavery in Russia includes the ratification earlier this year of the Protocol to the Forced Labour Convention of 1930, which requires states to adopt effective measures to prevent forced labour and to provide victims with protection and access to effective remedies, including compensation. Introduce legislation that requires large businesses to report on their actions taken to eliminate risk of modern slavery in their supply chains. Once in Russia these individuals faced physical abuse, withholding of documents, and unsafe working conditions.43 In recent years, the rouble has been devalued amid the contraction of the Russian economy due to low crude oil prices and western sanctions in response to Russia’s annexation of Crimea and involvement in Eastern Ukraine.44 In light of this and increasingly negative public and government attitudes towards migrants from Central Asia45 – combined with more restrictive migration policies aimed at Tajik, Belarusian, Kazak, and Armenian citizens46 – more migrants from Central Asia are entering Russia irregularly and thereby are more vulnerable to exploitation.47 Patterns exist where irregular migrants, due to their undocumented status, are willing to accept jobs without knowing exactly the nature and conditions of the work they are committing to. More will suffer if we don’t act’. Additionally, foreign women from Europe (mainly Ukraine and Moldova), Southeast Asia (primarily Vietnam), Africa (mainly Nigeria), and Central Asia fall victim to sex trafficking within Russia.30 There are reports of Nigerian women and girls being trafficked to Russia on student visas and subsequently forced into sex work to repay their alleged “debts” for visa and travel costs. The UK Modern Slavery Act states that companies must publish an annual statement if it has sales of more than £36 million and if some or all of its business is in the UK .It must confirm the steps taken to ensure slavery and human trafficking are absent from the business and supply chain or they must declare that no steps have been taken. She alleged abuses ranging from forced labour, passport confiscation, and beatings. Establish legislation that criminalises forced marriage and provide protection to those who may fall victim to forced marriage. The number of modern-day slaves in Russia is down from 2016, when the index estimated that 1.05 million people out of 45.8 million worldwide were enslaved in Russia, placing it 16th overall. Nearly 800,000 people live as modern-day slaves in Russia, working under conditions of forced labor, debt bondage and human trafficking, according to the 2018 Global Slavery Index, a worldwide analysis of slavery. Kondakov, A 2017, ‘Putting Russia’s homophobia violence on the map’, Open Democracy, 17 May. Only one Russian company has to date released a statement under the requirements of the Act: VTB Capital,88 from the diversified financials sector. ... India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, …
modern slavery in russia 2021