18 - ethnographic information from the survey villages. One of the major challenges is to end impunity for perpetrators. MARRIAGI, AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN RURAL PAPUA NEW GUINEA the results of a national rural survey. ever-partnered women having experienced physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner (ibid.). 19 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN URBAN PAPUA NEW GUINEA mainly based on results of surveys. 4 MARRIAGE IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA a companion to Occasional Paper No. domestic violence, including lack of affordable housing and lack of accessibility to legal assistance. Domestic Violence and Poverty Each country survey asked men about violence throughout their lives and included modules on child exposure to and witnessing of violence and experiences and perpetration of violence against women in adulthood. So far, only 44 countries (approximately) have adopted specific legisla-tion to address domestic violence. Globally, one out of every five women will become a victim of rape or attempted rape over the course of Family problems such as divorce, domestic violence and death of a parent have a highly negative effect on the student’s attendance at school. The incidence of violence and abuse happens to be a common trend where in many instances, women fall victim to men’s abusive behaviour and actions. A recent study found that approximately 70% of domestic violence victims did not disclose the abuse to their TANF caseworkers[10]. Violence against women is everywhere. GBV is a major cause of disability and death for women aged 15–44 years (United Nations Women 2011). Studies in both developing and developed countries indicate that between 20 and 67 percent of women globally experience violence in relationships.1 Domestic violence, A domestic violence study carried out by the Papua New Guinea Law Reform Commission found that 71% of the women interviewed considered alcohol abuse as a major cause of marital problems. • Occasional Paper No. • Monograph No. Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Sri Lanka). VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 1 in 3 women have experienced physical/sexual violence at some point in their lives. The spread of HIV in Papua New Guinea is influenced by the social and cultural context. The 20-year-old was accused of sanguma (or sorcery) – a major cause of gender-based violence in Papua New Guinea – and was publicly tortured and … “Domestic violence damages the prospects for economic and social development of every country, not just the lives of the victims” (CAFRA). An estimated 67% of wives have been beaten by their husbands with close to 100% in the Highlands Region according to a 1992 survey by the PNG Law Reform Commission. Of those who had been beaten by their spouse, 26% related the incident to alcohol.7 For many women in Papua New Guinea (PNG), violence and abuse are part of their daily lives. In urban areas, one in six women interviewed needed treatment for injuries caused by their husbands. No cause of domestic violence, however, justifies the actions of the abuser, nor should it be used as a rationale for their behavior. In such cases, students lack concern, love and parental control and become more inclined to show aimless attitudes such as absenteeism and school dropout. less than 40% of women who experienced violence sought help of any sort. Of those, less than 10% sought help from the police. 2 in 3 victims of intimate partner/ family related homicide are women. 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